Research data for this project were collected using mixed methods approach. Several data collection techniques were employed across the three sites: individual interviews, focus groups, participant observation, photo-elicitation techniques, and a survey questionnaire. A grand total of 378 people participated in all types of data collection activities.


In Australia, qualitative data were obtained through:

  • 49 individual interviews
  • Four focus groups held with 26 representatives of the Muslim organisations [including the Islamic Society of Deakin University (ISDU), the Hazara Women’s Network, the Muslim Women’s Center for Human Rights (MWCHR), and Victorian Arabic Social Services (VASS)

In USA, qualitative data were gathered via:

  • 33 individual face-to-face interviews [where participants included Imams, Muslim community leaders (including the coordinators of diverse community projects within Detroit), academics, mosque attendees and participants at the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) Annual conference, held in Downtown Detroit in 2014]

In France, qualitative data were collected through:

  • 33 individual interviews [representatives and their leaders come from diverse Islamic community organisations, including the Union of Young Muslims, the Islamic Association Al Islah, and the Collective Against Islamophobia in France (Collectif Contre L’Islamophobie en France CCIF)]

Prior to the qualitative research phase, individuals in each of the three sites were approached to complete survey questionnaires. Overall, 237 respondents completed the survey in three sites: 96 respondents in Australia, 93 in France and 48 in the USA. Because of the discrepancy in data obtained across the three sites, when describing the separate sites, actual numbers (i.e. frequencies) of participants are presented instead of percentages.

For a more in-depth breakdown of participants’ demographics, please refer to the full report: